Your REMEDY under the Common Law for the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 – by David Merrill

This essay was written by DAVID MERRILL under the title, “Federal Reserve Act – Remedy; Title 12”. The credit belongs to him alone.

It deals with the REMEDY available under the Common Law for the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and thereby to the federal Income Tax and the IRS.

This essay was found by me at:

I have re-posted it here because I think it is SUPERB re: its analysis.

David Merrill is an attorney. He filed suit against the Federal Reserve while he was still a law student at Georgetown Law School in Washington, D.C. The case reached the U.S. Supreme Court and can be found as: FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE (FOMC) OF the FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM, Petitioner, v. David R. MERRILL.
443 U.S. 340 (99 S.Ct. 2800, 61 L.Ed.2d 587)
U.S. Supreme Court
No. 77-1387.
Argued: Dec. 6, 1978; Decided: June 28, 1979.

David Merrill also posted a VIDEO on the same topic on YouTube titled, “Federal Reserve Act – Remedy” and can been seen at:    OR    OR

in this blog under “Videos by Exceptional People”


Federal Reserve Act Remedy TITLE 12

by David Merrill

[The REMEDY under the Common Law for the Federal Reserve Act of 1913]

12 Thursday Jan 2012

(attorney; filed suit against Federal Reserve “Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve”, while still a law student at Georgetown Law School)



443 U.S. 340 (99 S.Ct. 2800, 61 L.Ed.2d 587)

U.S. Supreme Court

No. 77-1387.

Argued: Dec. 6, 1978.

Decided: June 28, 1979.


12 Thursday Jan 2012


Tags: Federal Reserve Act, Federal Reserve Remedies, Juliard v. Greenman, Milan v. United States, Norman v. B &O Railroad, sovereign documents, Title 12 Section 411, US v. Rickman



§ 411. Issuance to reserve banks; nature of obligation; redemption

Federal reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for the purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks through the Federal reserve agents as hereinafter set forth and for no other purpose, are authorized. The said notes shall be obligations of the United States and shall be receivable by all national and member banks and Federal reserve banks and for all taxes, customs, and other public dues.

They shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve bank.

Federal Reserve Act Remedy

I’m David Merrill and I’d like to speak for a moment about the Federal Reserve Act written in 1913 and the remedy found therein, and how to apply it today.

It’s important to understand why a remedy had to be written into the Federal Reserve Act. To look at that, we look at the description in the title: [63rd Congress, Sess. 2; Ch. 4-6, P. 251]

“An Act. To provide for the establishment of Federal Reserve banks; to furnish an elastic currency; to afford means of rediscounting commercial [debt] paper…”

The important part for us to focus on is “to furnish an elastic currency”. To understand the authority behind remedy in the United States of America, we should look back to 1789, the Judiciary Act, and read:

“…saving to suitors in all cases the right of a common-law remedy, where the common law is competent to give it.”

This saving to suitors clause of 1789 also allows for the exclusive original cognizance by Congress and by the United States Government of all seizures on land. i.e. “reprisal”

Therefore, Congress was required to write the remedy from elastic currency into Section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act:

“They [Federal Reserve Notes] shall be redeemed in gold on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, or in gold or lawful money at any Federal Reserve bank.”

However, reading Section 16 carefully, the remedy from central banking reveals that Federal Reserve Notes are for reserve banks. If you have Federal Reserve Notes in your wallet, in other words, you are considered a reserve bank. [Or holder in due course]

To restate remedy, one could quit being a reserve bank by redeeming lawful money with their Federal Reserve Notes.

Corporate powers are defined in the Federal Reserve Act.

[63rd Congress, Sess. 2; Ch. 4-6, P. 254]

“Upon filing of such certificate with the comptroller of the currency as aforesaid, the said Federal Reserve bank shall become a body corporate, and as such, and in the name designated in each organization certificate, shall have power-

First. To adopt and use a corporate seal.

Second. To have succession for a period of twenty years from its organization unless it is soon dissolved by and Act of Congress, or unless its franchise becomes forfeited by some violation of law.

Third. To make contracts.

Fourth. To sue and be sued, complain and defend, in any court of law or equity.”

So, do the math. From 1913 to 1933 was twenty years. All these reserve banks — people with Federal Reserve Notes in their pockets, in their wallets, in their pillows, under their mattresses, whatever, in their bank accounts — they wanted to get their Federal Reserve Notes redeemed in 1933 for gold or gold certificates like United States notes (lawful money), in elastic currency.

Because the nature of Federal Reserve Notes is elastic currency, the Federal Reserve banks had been producing far more notes than they had gold and gold certificates redeemable in gold to return.

[Sandusky Masonic Bulletin – March 1933; Mason Museum Colorado Springs, Colorado]

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, formerly Governor of New York, quickly came to the bankers’ rescue. He declared the Bankers Holiday.

To make sense of legal tender” versus lawful money” one has to understand that the Constitution of the United States of America speaks about money in two distinct places:

[US Const., Art. 1, Sec. 10]

“No state shall … make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts”

And the other power is to Congress:

[US Const., Art. 1, Sec. 8, Cl. 5]

“To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures.”

Considering these two clauses in the context intended by the Founding Fathers, the United States of America does not have fiat currency, and it didn’t have fiat currency between 1789 and 1861. That’s when there was an extraordinary occasion, according to President Lincoln. [Congressional Globe, July 4, 1861]

Here’s where I’m going to have to warn you that I’m skipping a lot of history about emergency in America. But, on March 28, 1861, the emergency began, and it’s still in place today.

Parts of the emergency were ended in the late 70s, 1970s, but in the stipulations at the end of this Act from Congress, we find that the Trading With the Enemy Act, Title 12, Sections 95A and so forth about the Bankers Holiday, remain in full force and effect; meaning that, under this same emergency, a Bankers Holiday can be called at any time by the Secretary or the President.

[Public Law 94-412; 90 Stat. 1225; Sept. 14, 1976]

This is a critical point to remember if you are considering applying remedy today because they’ve kept the ability to make a Bankers Holiday. They’ve kept the ability to keep a Bankers Holiday in case all you reserve bankers with Federal Reserve Notes — private credit — in your pockets decide to redeem lawful money at the same time. That’s a bank run. Bankers Holidays are for bank runs.

If you’re following this evidence, the remedy is still in place. Logically, you should be wondering what happened after 1933. In 1934, the wording was changed to accommodate the gold seizure of FDR.

Section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was codified into Title 12, Section 411, and its been there ever since. It was changed in 1933 to read:

“They [Federal Reserve Notes] shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve bank.” 

[MY NOTE: United States Notes are “lawful money” – see below Note #444] ; thus one can redeem FRNs (elastic currency in unlimited quantity) for “lawful money” in the form of U.S. Notes (USNs are inelastic currency in limited quantity)]

Now, since then, many a patriot has marched into a Federal Reserve Bank with Federal Reserve Notes demanding gold, gold or silver coin, some sort of substance, some sort of lawful money according to that patriot’s rendition of what the Constitution reads.

And because of such patriots, it’s become impossible to even get into the lobby of the Federal Reserve bank under such a demand. I think it’s important to explain clearly that due to the saving to suitors clause of the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress can not take away remedy. Congress had to leave remedy in place.

So, we have to examine inelastic currency, United States notes:

“The amount of United States currency notes outstanding and in circulation-

(1) May not be more than $300,000,000; and

(2) May not be held or used for a reserve.”

[31 USC 5115]

What this means is the amount of United States currency notes outstanding and in circulation is fixed. The amount of United States notes in circulation cannot be expanded upon through fractional lending. This is the difference between elastic currency and inelastic currency.

For some insight into what the courts think of redeeming lawful money, let’s listen to the ninth circuit court [Milan v. United States , 524 F.2d 629]:

“Although golden eagles, double eagles, and silver dollars were lovely to look at and delightful to hold, holder of $50 Federal Reserve Bank Note, although entitled to redeem his note, was not entitled to do so in precious metal. Federal Reserve Act, § 16, 12 USCA § 411; Coinage Act of 1965, § 102, 31 USCA § 392.” [Milan v. United States , 524 F.2d 629]: 9th Circuit U.S. appeals court

Would you listen that! The justices of the ninth circuit admit that this gentleman was entitled to redeem his notes.

“(a) saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common law remedy, where the common law is competent to give it;”

It’s wise for the justices of the ninth circuit not to stand between people and their remedy by law. Sadly, by the verbiage, we can deduce that this gentleman did not know about the emergency since 1861 and did not know about the gold seizure in 1933, at least he wasn’t acknowledging it in law, whereas the ninth circuit justices do know about the history of America.

For example, here’s an informed opinion from the attorney general of the State of Michigan:

“It is my opinion, therefore, that the US Const., art. 1, Sec. 10 does not require the State of Michigan to pay its debts or receive payment for debts exclusively in either gold or silver coin. It is further my opinion that the State may not require payment of private debts exclusively in either gold or silver coin since Congress alone possesses and exercises that authority.” [Opinion 5934, July 15, 1981]

Note #444

Therefore, one should pay attention only to how Congress defines lawful money.

US v. Rickman638 F.2d 182:

“In the exercise of that power Congress has declared that Federal Reserve Notes are legal tender and are redeemable in lawful money.”US v. Rickman638 F.2d 182:

Note #444

In a similar case,  US v. Ware, 308 F.2d 400:

United States notes shall be lawful money, and a legal tender in payment of all debts, public and private, within the United States, except for duties on imports and interest on the public debt.” US v. Ware, 308 F.2d 400

Attorneys in black robes are trained to give opinions that make it sound as though they have the authority to define lawful money. I just told you the definition by Congress and it’s from this case, this very case.

“Defendant argues that the Federal Reserve Notes in which he was paid were not lawful money within the meaning of the Art. 1, s. 8, United States Constitution. We have held to the contrary. US v. Ware, 308 F.2d 400, 402-403. We find no validity in the distinction which defendant draws between “lawful money” and “legal tender.”  US v. Rickman638 F.2d 182:

You see, Gary Rickmanendorsed his paychecks, and by doing so he bonded his substance behind the fractional lending or the elastic currency, and therefore the elastic currency is as good as lawful money. It’s bonded.

Now, back to the citation.

“Money is a medium of exchange. Legal tender is money which law requires a creditor to receive in payment of an obligation. The aggregate powers granted to Congress by the Constitution includes broad and comprehensive authority over revenue, finance and currency.  Norman v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad , 294 US 240; 55 S.Ct. 407; 79 L.Ed. 885. In the exercise of that power Congress has declared that Federal Reserve Notes are legal tender and are redeemable in lawful money. Defendant received Federal Reserve Notes when he cashed his pay checks and used those notes to pay his personal expenses. He obtained and used lawful money.” US v. Rickman638 F.2d 182:

That’s what Gary Rickman did.

This explains the frustration of so many patriots going into the bank with Federal Reserve Notes demanding lawful money for them. They walk in with the admission they’d already endorsed private credit because they’re walking in with admitted Federal Reserve Notes. It’s not lawful money. It’s not United States notes in the form of lawful money.

They’re coming in with Federal Reserve Notes, private credit, demanding Federal Reserve Notes lawful money, but they already accrued the tax liability. They’ve already endorsed private credit.

[Milan v. USA, 524 F.2d 629]

Because the limitation of the exemption on the income tax for coinage is only $1,000, I’m only going to touch upon that lightly.

Coins do not say that they are Federal Reserve tokens. They say that they are coins equivalent to US dollars too. This recent asset report from the Federal Reserve to Congress reveals the situation about gold since the late 1970s.

Financial ministers around the world, in amending the Bretton Woods agreements, accepted France and America’s decision to go from the fixed exchange rate of gold — US dollar domestic to US dollar foreign — to a floating exchange rate, Special Drawing Rights [SDR].

[Statistical Supplement to the Federal Reserve Bulletin, May 2008 ]SDR’s are often called “paper gold,” and here we see that the gold in the United States, United Nations, IMF trust fund is still earmarked at $42.22 per ounce.This should peak the interest of anybody who has bought and sold gold because spot today is nearly $1,000 per ounce.

Wouldn’t that be nice to find one window where you could buy gold at $42 and sell it at another window at about $1,000. That would crash the windows. That would crash the difference between the US dollar and the Federal Reserve Note.

However, I intend to conclude this point about coins. The same coins, four quarters for instance, divide equally into US Dollars as they divide into Federal Reserve Notes. There’s a discrepancy in the physical metaphysics of the value of the coin.

Congress has stretched the metaphysics of the Federal Reserve Notes and United States notes to the point where if you were to tender United States notes they could be accepted at the same face value as Federal Reserve Notes, about a 20 to 1 discrepancy.

Since 1933 when remedy was fresh on people’s minds and they threatened a bank run by threatening to redeem lawful money instead of the Federal Reserve Notes, so very few people have been redeeming lawful money in the form of United States notes that on January 21, 1971 the Treasury decided to quit putting more United States notes into circulation simply because nobody was demanding lawful money instead of private credit from the Fed, Federal Reserve Notes.

[Department of the Treasury, Online FAQ]

Consider if you endorse private credit from the Fed with your paycheck by signing the back without any restrictive or non-endorsement verbiage, you’ve just accepted private credit from the Fed instead of lawful money.

[Typical Federal Tax Lien]

If you’d like to own a piece of property, you have to purchase it. You have to buy it. You have to pay for it in lawful money. You can’t pay for it in private credit without having an obligation or a residual first lien upon that property by whoever you got the private credit from.

In finding remedy, it’s critical to understand the distinction between discharging a debt and buying something. If you buy something you own it in allodium. That means you used lawful money to purchase it. [that is, gold, silver or U.S. Notes; NOT Federal Reserve Notes!!!!]  If you discharge debt [that is, paid via Federal Reserve Notes or bank credit], there’s still an obligation that resides in that item.


There is a distinction between a debt discharged and a debt “paid”. When discharged, the debt still exists though divested of it’s charter as a legal obligation during the operation of the discharge, something of the original vitality of the debt continues to exist, which may be transferred, even though the transferee takes it subject to it’s disability incident to the discharge.” [Stanek v. White, 172 Minn. 390, 215 N.W. 784]

Many well intentioned patriots fall into the mental trap of thinking the Notice of Federal Tax lien is part of curing out the lien. It’s not part of perfecting the lien at all. It’s notice to third parties that the lien is already cured. The lien is already cured because the Treasury had first lien.

And don’t be fooled by a comic book designed so 10 year olds can understand fractional reserve lending. The Fed takes you and your substance bonding this increase in the elastic currency as serious as a heart attack.

The law simply states the remedy is simple.

“They [Federal Reserve Notes] shall be redeemed in gold on demand…” [Federal Reserve Act, § 16]

Okay. So that’s all there is to it. I found a fellow on the internet doing it with this verbiage above his signature on the reverse side [of the check]. And this works rather well with tellers. They don’t quite understand it so they quickly give you your funds, lawful money. United States notes in the form of Federal Reserve Notes.


However, many people have found this direct approach works much better.

John Doe d/b/a JOHN DOE

This intrepid suitor filed a libel of review in admiralty in the United States district courts using lawful money. He kept track of the bills. See, there’s the bank notary authorizing both the bills and his true name.

Congress keeping wartime provisions through the Trading with the Enemy Act for a Bankers Holiday sometime in the future may not be proof enough to convince you. Reading from Juliard v. Greenman (Legal Tender Cases), 110 US 421, the backbone case of the Legal Tender Cases following the war between the States:

“…providing that notes of the United States issued during a War of the Rebellion, under acts of congress declaring them to be legal tender in payment of private debts, shall be reissued and kept in circulation.” Juliard v. Greenman (Legal Tender Cases), 110 US 421

The important point to get is that Congress has never enacted any legislation to take United States notes out of circulation.

At the beginning I showed you Title 31 United States Code 5115 defining United States notes to be inelastic. Interestingly, in 1982 Congress made another revision to that same section.

In the section the words “United States currency notes” are substituted for “United State notes” for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

Remember that the Constitution grants the power to remove United States notes from circulation only to the Congress, not to the Treasury. Let’s pretend, though, for a moment that the Treasury does have the authority. Listen to this wording, carefully:

“United States notes serve no function that is not already adequately served by Federal Reserve notes. As a result, the Treasury Department stopped issuing United States notes, and none have been placed into circulation since January 21, 1971.” [Treasury Dept. Online FAQ]

The Treasury has not removed United States notes from circulation. Rather, for all intents and purposes, Federal Reserve Notes function adequately as inelastic currency, United States notes, when they are not endorsed.

It’s interesting to note, that as hundred, maybe even thousands of Americans started redeeming lawful money from their paychecks, Congress escalated the frivolous filing penalty from $500 to $5,000. A Frivolous Positions memorandum was issued to all IRS agents. The memorandum itemized quite a few various frivolous positions for which the taxpayer could be penalized this new $5,000 fine.

Items 11 and 12 come close to the redeeming lawful money issue:

(11) Federal Reserve Notes are not taxable income when paid to a taxpayer because they are not gold or silver and may not be redeemed for gold or silver.
(12) In a transaction using gold and silver coin, the value of the coins is excluded from income or the amount realized in the transaction is the face value of the coins and not their fair market value for purposes of determining taxable…

But neither one of these are redeeming lawful money pursuant to Title 12, Section 411. At the end of the memorandum, summarized, it says:

“Returns or submissions that contain positions not listed above, which on their face have no basis for validity in existing law, or which have been deemed frivolous in a published opinion of the United States Tax Court or other court of competent jurisdiction, may be determined to reflect a desire to delay or impede the administration of Federal tax laws and thereby subject to the $5,000 penalty.”

Well, as I’ve shown, Title 12 Section 411 is the existing law. And the ninth circuit court opinion supports that Federal Reserve Notes may be redeemed at any time in lawful money.

In debating with a tax attorney in an Internet chat room, the tax attorney pointed out to me that the employee agrees to handle Federal Reserves Notes and private credit from the Fed when filling out the W-4 or the 1099 form. By providing that information that’s the agreement.

Okay. I agree. Our hypothetical employee is a federal reserve bank handling private credit as intended by the 1913 Federal Reserve Act. That’s what remedy is provided for. That’s who the remedy is provided for.

Now, our hypothetical employee is on his way home from work, and he drops in his boss’s bank to cash his $500 paycheck. He still has the option to redeem lawful money and get out private reserve banking.

I produced a video along these lines about a year ago and was chatting on a website called Restore the Republic by Aaron Russo, started before he died of course. He’s the producer of a movie called America: Freedom to Fascism.

Today, a member made a comment there that I thought was worth sharing:

We must stop the Federal Reserve before our nation is completely destroyed! The US Code states that all Federal Reserve Notes can be redeemed at any Federal Reserve Bank for lawful money. This is a fact! I propose to all the members of RTR to start today. Talk to everyone they know and get a copy of the section of the US Code that details the redemption of Federal Reserve Notes in lawful money.

It goes on and you can pause if you’d like to read this entire comment. My point being, in conclusion, it’s not a legal determination that’s up to the Treasury, the Treasurer, the Secretary of the Treasury, the bank teller or the bank notary. This is a decision to demand lawful money that’s up to you, by remedy. You’re the one who makes the choice.

A woman in a small Maine bank had the bank manager demand that she strike through the restricted endorsement (is what it was called up there).


She was a single mom. She had to. Her demand was clear and witnessed by the notary at the bank. The following week she hand wrote a simpler demand for lawful money, and it worked fine.

John Doe d/b/a JOHN DOE

I heard that the next week, she had trouble again. The banks are a little bit confused about how to do the accounting on this non-endorsement, this redemption of lawful money. The bank attorneys become very concerned when they realize that they cannot fractionally lend on the funds that have been withdrawn or deposited.

In this case, one fellow had a rubber paycheck from his employer who didn’t have funds to cover it, and he deposited it. Well, they had to return the instrument to this fellow, and when they did they had torn the non-endorsement verbiage off the check, hiding the fact that they had counterfeited money off of his funds because they fractionally lent upon it without a bond.

He had not assured them that his substance and everything he owned was on first lien by the Treasury as a bond behind the extra inelastic currency.

An employee paid periodically, dropping by his boss’s bank where he does not have an account, is the simplest scenario to understand redemption of lawful money. If you can understand that scenario and your right to demand lawful money, in that it’s nobody else’s legal determination, then you can add it to signature cards and withdrawal slips, and so forth, in more complicated scenarios.

John Doe d/b/a JOHN DOE

The posting member on the Restore the Republic site was speaking specifically about ordering up a certified copy of Title 12 Section 411 by calling 7195206200 and asking for reception #207015932 filed February 5, 2007.

Like-minded suitors redeeming lawful money were meeting in Colorado Springs. I was at a meeting and a fellow came from Denver. He’d been redeeming lawful money on his signature card with his bank. He’d altered the signature card for the authorizing signature to redeem lawful money on every transaction.

They called him, under false pretenses, saying his wife had trouble with her account. So, he went into the bank and then found out that they were telling him, “We’re closing down your accounts unless you change it back.” So, he changed it back because he needed the accounts.

What we did is we got him a certified copy of this [certified copy of Title 12 Section 411] from the County Clerk and Recorder in Colorado Springs, and then he took it up to Denver, showed it to them and they allowed him to redeem lawful money on his account by signature card again. They allowed him to change it back.

This suitor is a state employee in California. He retroactively got refunds from the state for two years by simply declaring, in effect, “If I had known in good faith I could have been redeeming lawful money, I would have been doing so for these past two years.”

Now, we have the possibility of redeeming withholdings. That is to say, if an employee is having withholdings sent to the IRS during the year, he could get a full refund by redeeming lawful money simply by proving that he had been redeeming lawful money all year long. Which is to say, if he showed that refund check to his boss, his boss might discontinue withholding because the IRS had been unlawfully using the interest on all those funds during that year before he got his refund.

This is where it’s wise to wonder, if America is shifted over to “paper gold” or Special Drawing Rights, then isn’t it patriotic to continue paying the income tax, continue subjecting yourself to be the chattel bonding the money supply?

The comment you’re reading is found in the State Department bulletin late 1975 from Undersecretary of the Treasury Katz, and what he’s talking about is a preamble to the secret Jamaica/Rambouillet Accord between France and America, piggy-backed on the amendments of Bretton Woods agreements in 1976.

This is when we went over to Special Drawing Rights, a basket of currencies, a fictional basket of currencies between five exemplary nations, originally between 23 nations I believe, but it’s long since been between five exemplary nations where the conditioning to endorse private credit as the only option is prevalent.

The CIA offers accurate and current information about macroeconomics all around the world. This is probably no surprise to see China at the top, nearly $400 billion dollars in the black.

Then it might not surprise you if among the 200 or so nations listed, United States is in the bottom, nearly $800 billion dollars in the red.

There’s of course a lot of factors to consider about import and export, account deficits, etc., but remember that America started the SDR’s back in 1975.

Looking at China’s information, in the middle of the paragraph:

… After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. [CIA World Factbook, Online]

That’s Special Drawing Rights (SDR).

Regardless of what you might think of Ron Paul, the American people have stated what they think of the Federal Reserve by simply endorsing private credit thereof. I think Ron Paul should be commended, however, for putting legislation before the Congress on at least two occasions to abolish the Fed with virtually no constituency.

These, of course, flopped the moment he quit talking about them. They didn’t make it ’til the next morning because there is no constituency. America loves the Fed because America endorses the Fed. That’s their vote. They vote by signature on the back side of every paycheck.

The good side of that is they do it by conditioning. Conditioning can be defeated because conditioning is a state of mind. And I hope I don’t say that hastily because conditioning can also be the most powerful thing to defeat. Our belief sets are one of our most protected assets.

An outstanding example of conditioning is how few Americans will believe what they can see what they can see right there on camera, watching the Treasury Secret Service driver’s left hand. In observing the simple physics, the momentum, the direction of the bullet as it hits JFK’s head, it may be hard to believe but one construction is the American people killed JFK by supporting private credit and endorsing private credit from the Fed.

JFK, by executive order, was standing up against the Fed.

Before the Convention of States in 1933, Franklin Delano Roosevelt admits that it’s voluntary to help out [by accepting Federal Reserve Notes when cashing their pay checks]. He’s pleading to the people to enter their paychecks into these new forms, private credit of the Fed, to save the Fed past the 20 year charter expiration.

“Recognize Government bonds are as safe as Government currency. They have the same credit back of them. And, therefore, if we can persuade people all through the country, when their salary checks come in, to deposit them in new accounts, which will be held in trust and kept in one of the new forms I have mentioned, we shall have made progress.” [Address Before the Governor’s Conference at the White House, March 6, 1933; The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1928-1932]

In summary, I’d like to paint a picture of the box that you would use to paint the prosecution into a corner with on this redeeming lawful money issue. Simply put, if someone tells you that you don’t have the right to redeem lawful money, you use Title 12 Section 411 [United States Code] and Section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act. That’s your remedy. That’s the law that says so, and it’s current law.

If they tell you you’re doing it incorrectly, then you simply say, “Well then the burden on you is to show me how it’s done correctly.”

Another box to consider is that, if they were to argue, “Well, you started redeeming lawful money in the first month of 2004.”

Well then you’d simply say, “Okay, then you admit that I do have the right to redeem lawful money and things changed when I started doing so.”

But, while you’re establishing the record in a court of equity to begin with, try this, “If I had in good faith known that I could have been redeeming lawful money all along, I would have done so since my first paycheck ever.”

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